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  Forms of Cassava Exports and Imports
  Raw Tubers and Frozen Cassava
Very small quantities of cassava raw tubers are being exported to Middle East and Gulf countries in two forms.

a. Raw tubers
b. Frozen cassava

These exports are routed through Kochi sea port and from Kozhikode and Thiruvananthapuram air ports. Raw tubers are exported in cartons packed and filled with saw dust. The frozen cassava is exported after peeling the tubers and cutting into small pieces and freezing at -18°C in the frozen containers of ship. These exports are meant to meet the demand of ethnic Indian population in the Gulf and Middle East countries.
   
  Cassava Chips
Dried cassava chips were exported mainly to European countries like the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and Russia. Even though published data showed that cassava chips were exported between 1972-73 and 1985-86, recent trade enquiries in Andhra Pradesh revealed that even in 1987-88,1992-93, 1993-94 and 1995-96, dried chips continued to be exported from Kakinada port to the European countries. Some of the export specifications for chips are:

1. Chips with fungus at Moisture content of chips should not exceed 11%.
2. Chips with fungus attack should not be more than 2%.
3. Percentage of thin roots, chips with stem portion should not exceed 2%.
4. Dust in the chips should not exceed 1.5 to 2%.

Trade enquiries indicated that high percentage of sand and silica in the chips is the general problem in the quality of chips exported from India. If there is export demand, then the chips collected by middlemen, commission agents and traders are exported through chips. The importers accept the produce only when the quality controllers (SJS and Geocum) certify that it meets the export specifications. ed only recently from India i.e. from 1992-93 onwards. It is exported from Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata ports to European countries and South East Asian countries. Our major problem in starch exports is the inconsistency in the quality of starch. However, India is facing a stiff competition in (manioc) starch export from Thailand. India is not able to compete in the international market for cassava starch due to its poor quality and high price. Due to recession in Thailand in the recent years, starch prices are less in Thailand in the global market compared to Indian prices.
   
  Tapioca & Substitutes
Under this group, various value added products prepared from cassava starch in the form of flakes, grains, pearls and siftings in smaller forms are exported. This group has a major share among the cassava exports from India. These products are routed through Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata ports.
   
   


Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Sreekariyam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala - 17